Surgical instruments represent a large portion of healthcare facilities. There are many surgical companies in Pakistan, and they manufacture approximately all categorized surgical instruments in Pakistan to feed healthcare needs. Each instrument is designed for a specific purpose and should never be used for any other purpose.

The tools that surgeons rely on to ensure a positive outcome of a surgical procedure are referred to as surgical instruments. For example, scalpel blades help in skin incisions. Most of the surgical apparatus is made of stainless steel. But Chromium, Titanium, Molybdenum, and Vanadium are involved in coating surgical instruments, preventing corrosion. These Surgical tools are classified on two basis.

  • On the basis of function
  • On the basis of structure

Five Basic Classification Of Surgical Instruments on the Basis of Function

There are five primary classifications of surgical instruments.


Hand-Held Surgical Instruments

Hand-held surgical devices are not powered, hand-held, or hand-manipulated devices. They are intended to be used in various general surgical procedures such as scalpels, forceps, and retractors. In general, Class I devices are the safest in terms of their risks to the patient and users. There are seven basic categories of hand-held surgical instruments.

  • Hemostats
  • Forceps
  • Retractors
  • Needle Holder
  • Sharp / Dissectors / Cuttings

Microsurgical Instruments

Microsurgical instruments allow the manipulation and surgical intervention of tiny bodily tissues. Smaller body tissues are easier to access with these instruments. They have a slim design that makes it easier to access larger tissues. They provide better maneuverability for doctors and surgeons to perform the surgery properly. It makes it easier for surgeons to perform their surgery well. The tools include:

  • Micro scissors
  • Micro forceps
  • Micro ring forceps
  • Surgical scissors
  • Micro tissue forceps
  • Microneedle holders
  • Vessel Dilators
  • Mayo Scissors
  • Acland Micro
  • Vascular Clamps
  • Sutures

Powered Surgical Instruments

These are medical devices and instruments designed specially to assist in the performance of various surgeries including ENT surgery, orthopedic surgery, maxillofacial surgery, and neurosurgery.

Medical technologies used to assist in the performance of surgeries are known as powered surgical instruments. They are generally grouped as large pneumatic bone, battery/electric large bone, small pneumatic bone, small electric bone and high-speed equipment. Examples of these powered surgical tools include:

  • Surgical drills
  • Saws
  • Clip appliers
  • Surgical staplers

Laparoscopic Surgical Instruments

A surgical instrument allows the surgeons to access the inside of the abdominal cavity (tummy) and pelvis without a large incision into the skin. These surgical instruments allow the surgeons to view the internal organ. The laparoscopic video camera and rigid telescopes used in surgery allow visualization inside the body; all of this is done through a tiny incision no more significant than an inch long.

  • Retractors
  • Cannulas
  • Trocars
  • Hooks and Probes
  • Trocar Incision Closure Devices
  • Electrodes and Electrosurgical Cables
  • Laparoscopic Bipolar Scissors and Graspers
  • Forceps and Graspers
  • Knot Pushers
  • Needles and Needle Holders
  • Rigid Scopes
  • Scissors

Endoscopic Surgical Instruments

These are scientific tools that doctors use to visualize the organs internally. These are small and rigid equipment that is used with light, mainly to monitor the esophagus, stomach and colon. They usually have multiple uses; therapeutic along with diagnostic uses. The equipment includes:

  • Encephaloscope
  • Laryngoscope
  • Esophagoscope
  • Nephroscope
  • Colonoscope
  • Esophagoscope
  • Bronchoscope
  • Gastroscope
  • Amnioscope

Classification on the basis of Structure

Broadly, surgical instruments are divided on the basis of structure, they include:

Holding Instruments

Elevators, forceps and clamps are the widely used tools.

Dissecting Instruments

Scalpels, scissors, saws and surgical blade is a tool that is used to cut vessels or make small incisions are the most typical surgical instruments used in Pakistan.

Hemostatic Instruments

These are mainly use for the cessation of bleeding. Artery forceps, Sutures and Cautery are the examples.

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