A large number of surgical companies in Pakistan manufacture various surgical instruments including cardiac surgery instrument set. The instruments manufactured in Pakistan are of top quality and are distributed to different hospitals. These instruments are also exported to different parts of the world. There are two types of surgeries performed that deal with heart and nearby structures namely, cardiothoracic and cardiovascular surgeries. Cardiovascular surgery instruments are designed specifically to deal with surgeries related to heart and vessels that carry blood to and from the heart. The basic cardiac surgery instrument set consist of clamps, scissors, needle holder, scalpel, forceps etc.

The Debakey forceps are the most commonly used forceps as they are a-traumatic tissue forceps used in vascular surgeries to avoid tissue damage. Scissors are used to cut open the tissues. They can either be curved or straight. Needle holder also known as needle driver or needle forceps is another important instrument to push the needle during wound closure, ligation or other surgical procedures. It is designed to be gripped with the fingers and palm. Scalpels are used to make skin incisions, tissue dissections etc. scalpel comes in different sizes and numbers. All blades perform differently according to their site of use. The scalpel consist of two parts, a blade and a handle. The blade can be disposed off whereas the handle is reusable by sterilization. All these surgical instruments are an essential part of cardiac surgery.

The cardiothoracic surgical instruments are used for surgeries that deal with heart, lungs, esophagus and organs within the chest cavity. The set includes rib spreaders, sternum spreaders, graspers and basic surgical instruments. Cardiothoracic surgeries are used to treat issues like heart failure, pulmonary embolism and esophageal cancer. The cardiovascular surgery refers to surgery that deals with heart or vessels of it. The cardiovascular surgery instruments are vascular clamps, micro needle and sutures, scissors, forceps, micro scissors etc.

All these surgical instruments are mainly made of stainless steel because of its high strength and toughness, resistance to corrosion, ability to be cleaned easily which makes it a material of choice in instances where hygiene is the top priority. Other materials include aluminum, carbon steel and titanium. The surgical instruments are manufactured worldwide but the surgical instruments in Pakistan are considered to be the best and as previously discussed, they are exported to different countries around the world. The city of Sialkot is the center of metal work where all instruments are manufactured by highly skilled artisans. Due to the fine quality of instruments and the longevity, different hospitals and surgical instruments companies get the instruments from there.

The cardiothoracic surgery instruments and the cardiovascular surgery instruments both are very fine and sharp which enables the surgeon to perform the surgery with ease and finesse. Cardiothoracic instruments include aspirating, irrigating and suction tubes, bronchus clamps, bone cutting forceps, lung grasping forceps, retractors, rongeurs, sternal knife, rib contractors, wire instruments etc. The handling of instruments is a skill as it requires a lot of understanding and practice.

Every surgical instrument is different in handling than the other so in order to have a fine grip on instruments it is essential to know the basics of it. It is to be noted that not only the surgeon but also the staff should have a sound knowledge regarding the handling of instruments to ensure its long life and efficiency. There are two type of cardiac surgery instruments namely disposable and reusable. The reusable ones can be reused after proper sterilization whereas disposable are those that can be discarded after single use. Reusable instruments include forceps, stethoscope etc.

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